Materials Composition of Cleanrooms

In modern industry and healthcare fields, the demand for clean environments is steadily increasing. Cleanrooms, as one of the key facilities ensuring environmental cleanliness, require careful selection of materials. Choosing the right materials is crucial for ensuring the efficient operation of cleanrooms and maintaining a clean environment. This article will provide you with a detailed understanding of the materials composition of cleanrooms, offering assistance for your future cleanroom design and construction endeavors.

Cleanroom

Wall Materials

The walls of cleanrooms bear the crucial responsibility of protecting the interior clean environment. The outer panels of the wallboard are typically made of materials such as color-coated steel, stainless steel, aluminum alloy, etc., known for their excellent corrosion resistance and compressive strength. The inner core material usually consists of materials like polystyrene foam, polyurethane, rock wool, glass wool, etc., serving the purposes of insulation, soundproofing, and thermal insulation. Depending on the production process, they are mainly divided into two categories: mechanized panels and handcrafted panels.

Wall Materials

 

Mechanized Panels

Mechanized panels are cleanroom panels produced entirely by machine equipment in a streamlined process. They typically come in thicknesses of 50/75/100/150/200mm, with standard widths of 950/1150mm. The length can be customized according to the actual project needs, but excessively long lengths are not recommended, generally not exceeding 11.8m, as longer lengths can affect the overall load-bearing capacity of the panels and the loading and unloading processes. Common core materials used in mechanized panels include polystyrene foam, PU polyurethane, rock wool, etc.

 

Polystyrene Foam Sandwich Panels

Polystyrene foam cleanroom panels, also known as EPS cleanroom panels, use EPS as a lightweight material with excellent insulation properties. Its thermal insulation performance helps reduce construction costs. Fire-resistant or fire-rated EPS has better fire resistance. EPS cleanroom panels are widely used in clean environments in industries such as medical, pharmaceutical, electronics, food processing, laboratories, etc., especially in production workshops and warehouses.

 

Polyurethane Color Steel Sandwich Panel

Polyurethane color steel sandwich panels, also known as PU sandwich panels, have a density of generally 38-40kg/m3 for the PU core material. Compared to EPS, PU has higher strength and wear resistance, and better thermal and sound insulation properties. Therefore, PU sandwich panels are commonly used in production workshops and warehouses with higher cleanliness requirements.

 

Rock Wool Sandwich Panel

Rock Wool Sandwich Panel

Rock wool is a type of thermal insulation material made from natural rock minerals. It possesses excellent thermal insulation, soundproofing, and fire resistance properties, with a fire rating of Class A, which is superior to EPS and PU materials. Rock wool sandwich panels are not only suitable for cleanrooms and fireproof workshops but also for insulation and soundproofing in baking rooms, paint rooms, and ship cabins.

In summary, EPS, PU, and rock wool differ in structure, performance, and application. The choice should be made based on specific needs and circumstances.

 

Handcrafted Panels

Handcrafted panels are a type of reinforced composite sandwich panel produced through a semi-mechanical and manual process. The surface of the steel plate usually adopts materials such as color-coated baked paint steel plate, galvanized plate, stainless steel plate, antistatic plate, PVDF fluorocarbon plate, etc., for cleanroom purposes. The core material can be filled with materials like glass magnesium board, gypsum board, rock wool, glass wool, polyurethane, paper honeycomb, aluminum honeycomb, polystyrene, extruded plastic, etc. These handcrafted panels are surrounded by galvanized/cold-rolled keels, and for projects requiring greater load-bearing capacity, internal keel reinforcement within the sandwich panels can be considered. The standard width of handcrafted panels is 980/1180mm, and the length can be customized, but it is generally recommended to be less than 6 meters. Common methods of connecting panels include tongue-and-groove aluminum or butt-joint connections. Handcrafted panels are primarily used in factories in industries such as food, pharmaceuticals, electronics, and research, as well as partitions and ceilings in various facilities.

 

Ceiling Materials

Ceiling Materials

 

The ceiling of a cleanroom can be made of different materials based on the requirements of the application environment. Common core materials for ceilings include rock wool, glass wool, etc., while the surface is typically made of various metal sheets.

 

Flooring Materials

The floor is one of the areas in a cleanroom that is most susceptible to contamination, so the choice of flooring material is crucial. Common options include dust-free epoxy flooring, PVC flooring, and concrete flooring.

Flooring Materials

Dust-free epoxy flooring is often used in environments with high cleanliness requirements due to its smooth surface, abrasion resistance, and ease of cleaning.

PVC flooring offers features such as slip resistance, anti-static properties, and easy cleaning, making it suitable for laboratories, medical facilities, and similar areas.

Concrete flooring is advantageous in terms of cost and durability, making it suitable for general industrial environments where cleanliness requirements are not as stringent.

 

Door and Window Materials

Doors and windows are essential ventilation points in cleanrooms, and the choice of materials for them is crucial.

Door and Window Materials

 

Cleanroom Doors

Common materials for doors include aluminum alloy, stainless steel, and steel. Stainless steel doors are corrosion-resistant, easy to clean, and durable. Aluminum alloy doors are lightweight and durable, primarily used in general industrial environments. Steel doors are treated for rust resistance, have excellent corrosion resistance, a smooth surface that resists dust and dirt accumulation, and are easy to clean and maintain. They come equipped with high-quality locks and handles. Cleanroom doors typically feature glass viewing windows, with fixed dimensions of 400x600mm and available in rectangular and oval shapes. Additionally, cleanroom doors are fitted with sealing strips to tightly seal with the door frame, preventing contaminants from entering.

Depending on the specific application scenario, cleanroom doors can be sliding, swing, or automatic, with the choice based on user convenience and efficient space utilization.

 

Cleanroom Windows

Cleanroom windows are a type of window used in clean environments, designed and selected to ensure that the interior of the cleanroom is not contaminated by external pollutants. The glass used for cleanroom windows is typically single or double-pane tempered glass, which offers good transparency and durability. Additionally, the frames of cleanroom windows are equipped with sealing strips to tightly seal with the window frame.

 

Sealing Materials

Sealing materials in cleanrooms are a crucial component for maintaining the cleanliness of the interior environment. Here are some common sealing materials used in cleanrooms:

Sealing Materials

Silicone Sealant Strips: Silicone sealant strips have excellent resistance to high temperatures, aging, and chemical corrosion. They are commonly used for sealing cleanroom doors, windows, and other areas to effectively prevent external air and particles from entering.

 

Polyurethane Sealant: Polyurethane sealant has good adhesive properties and weather resistance, maintaining stability at different temperatures. It is commonly used for sealing and caulking joints in cleanrooms.

Rubber Sealant Strips: Rubber sealant strips have good elasticity and sealing properties, effectively preventing gas and liquid leaks. They are commonly used for sealing cleanroom doors, windows, and other areas.

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Sealant Strips: PVC sealant strips have good weather resistance and chemical resistance, commonly used for sealing cleanroom doors and windows to effectively isolate external pollutants.

Foam Sealant Strips: Foam sealant strips have good elasticity and shock absorption properties, filling irregular surfaces and gaps. They are commonly used for sealing cleanroom pipes, air vents, and other areas.

EPDM Sealant Strips: EPDM sealant strips have excellent resistance to high temperatures, aging, and weathering. They are commonly used for sealing cleanroom doors and windows, maintaining sealing effectiveness over the long term.

These sealing materials play an important role in cleanrooms, effectively maintaining the cleanliness and stability of the interior environment. When choosing sealing materials, it is necessary to make a reasonable selection based on the specific requirements and environmental conditions of the cleanroom, ensuring their quality and safety.

 

Filter Materials

The filter materials used in cleanrooms are crucial components for filtering out particles and pollutants in the air, ensuring that the interior environment of the cleanroom meets the required cleanliness level. Here are some common filter materials used in cleanrooms:

Filter Materials

 

1. Prefilter:

Prefilters are typically made of materials such as fiberglass, synthetic fibers, or cotton fibers. They effectively filter out large particles of dust, hair, and debris, protecting subsequent filters from clogging.

 

2. Medium Efficiency Filter:

Medium efficiency filters are usually made of materials such as fiberglass, synthetic fibers, or cellulose paper. They filter out medium-sized particles and microorganisms, improving air quality.

 

3. High Efficiency Filter:

High efficiency filters are made of high-efficiency filter materials such as fiberglass, synthetic fibers, or metal fibers. They effectively filter out particles, bacteria, and viruses in the air, providing higher cleanliness.

 

4. High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter:

High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter

HEPA filters are made of high-efficiency filter materials such as fiberglass and synthetic fibers. They can filter out 99.97% or more of 0.3-micron particles in the air, making them one of the highest-grade filters in cleanrooms.

These filter materials play different roles in cleanrooms. Depending on the air quality requirements and application scenarios, suitable combinations of filters can be chosen to ensure that the air reaches the desired cleanliness level. When selecting filter materials, factors such as filtration efficiency, durability, and maintenance costs should be considered, and filters should be replaced regularly to maintain their performance and effectiveness.

 

Conclusion

In summary, the composition of materials in cleanrooms directly affects their cleanliness and functional effectiveness. Choosing the right materials and equipment is crucial for constructing and maintaining a clean environment.

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